At first, discussions about women’s issues is a discussion about Islam itself. In principle, almost all scholars agreed on the equality of men and women before God Almighty. There is no virtue among men except for piety owned. Not on gender, ethnicity or skin color. Then, the differences of Scholars opinion who happen to particular things (furu’iyyah, not the principle) on the issue of women, viewed as their differences in access to sources of Islam or in the argument. Or differences arising from the context of each of the living and struggling with the community and different experiences.
Just like the saying of Imam Malik ibn Anas: “Let every nation has its scholars each, which would have considered different from one another.” Or in the words of Imam Abu Hanifah (d. 150 H): “This is just my view on Islam. Any person who has a better view, bring to the argument that enough.” Also Imam Shafi’i (d. 204 H) who is famous for his view: “in my opinion, I think it is true even contain the possibility of one, while others who are different opinion, I think is wrong, even contain the possibility of truth.”
With a perspective like this, discussions took place among scholars when discussing the particular issues concerning the relation of men and women. All views were deemed to be within the framework of Islam and Islamic opinion, such as the pros and cons about the right of women to leave the house, the right to economic activity, the right to marry themselves or others, the right to be the leader or the other. Until when the socio-political and economic decline of Muslims and colonized by the Western world imperialism, when they are not constantly exposed to physical and psychic invasion goes to the heart of the nation and Muslim countries, they become black and white in seeing every issue , including the issue of women’s rights.
As Karen Armstrong, a linkage between the Islamic world and the West had opened the consciousness of many scholars to raise awareness of Muslims from adversity by taking the values of Western renaissance. But Islamophobia (fear of Islam, ed.) Western Exhaled relentlessly and not civilized, politically lead the Muslims against the West with the same hate, even greater. Anything that comes from the West, (then) be ugly, evil and must be confronted, including the agenda assertion and defense of women’s rights. This is regarded as a Western agenda that evil and must be resisted. Affirmation of women’s rights, by some, an issue which is outside Islam.
Under its Muslims condition, then our consciousness is often less clear in viewing the issue. In connection with the discussion about women’s rights, or any issue, should we base on a history that is very famous: “al-kalimatu al-hikmatu dhâllatu al-Mu’min, fa fa Huwa haitsu wajadaha ahaqqu Biha“. (Narrated by Tirmidhi, Kitab al-‘Ilmi: 2687). It means: “The sentence wisdom (wisdom, goodness) is like a lost property belonging to the believers. Therefore, wherever he found it, he is entitled to such wisdom.” This Hadith was also narrated by Imam Ibn Majah in Kitab al-Zuhd: 4169.
Moreover, if the issue of women’s rights advocacy, we find a strong basis of Quranic verses and Hadith texts. Of course, various interpretations of scholars throughout history still need to be reviewed, on certain issues concerning women’s rights. In principle, Islam teaches justice relations between men and women. The rights and obligations they all, as human beings are the same: to bring a life of good pleasure of God and human welfare (baldatun thayyibatun wa rabbun Ghafur). This paper presents some hadith texts on which the affirmation of women’s rights.
Text Hadith Reference
In the religious community, recognizing the existence of a major is the right of equality before God. In this case, Islam through the Koran and Hadith either expressly provides recognition of equality and equality of rights between men and women. In a very famous speech at the Farewell Pilgrimage ‘(farewell), the Prophet. asserted equal rights before God Almighty, as sons and daughters of the Prophet Adam. and Mother Eve, who is not differentiated from the skin, or ethnic groups.
Text another tradition, which is very firmly in a long statement, which was narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood and Tirmizi. From Abu Hurairah ra., That the Messenger of Allah. He said: “The Muslim is a brother to another Muslim, should not abused, harass, or insult one another. piety it here (pointing to his chest). It’s quite a person is considered evil, if it is to insult the Muslim brothers. Every Muslim is forbidden “interfere with” life, dignity or property of another Muslim. Verily Allah does not look thrown, not even on your face. God only see your heart and charitable deeds. ” (See: Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul, juz VII, p. 336, no.: 4729)
Awareness of this equality, which encouraged the women at the time of the Prophet. to ask for an explicit statement of the Prophet., through revelation. Narrated, in a Hadith narrated by Tirmizi (See: Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul, juz II, p. 161, no.: 552), that Umm Salamah ra. asked the Prophet explicitly mentioned the roles of women, who have real faith and emigrated the same as men. Because of all this, which many referred to male. Or at least, the language used is the language of men. She submitted her request to the Messenger of Allah., Then come down the verse:
“So their Lord permit application (to) them, (by saying):” Behold, I will not waste the charity of people who labor among you, both men and women, some of you from others, namely their who emigrated, who were expelled from their homes, which hurts on my street, a fight (to defend themselves) and who was killed, I certainly would eliminate their mistakes and must I enter them into Paradise beneath which rivers flow, as a reward from Allah, and Allah on his side a good reward. “(Surah Ali Imran, 3: 195)
Friends of Umm al-Anshariyyah ammarah ra. (In history Tirmizi. See: Ibn al-Athir, juz II, p. 377, no. Hadith: 760), also dared to tell: “I came to the Prophet., And said: It seems, all things entrusted to men. I do not see the woman mentioned in any role. ” Then came a verse:
“Verily, men or Muslim women, men or women who are believers, men or women who are obedient, men or women who are honest, male or female patient, male or female who serious ‘, men or women who give alms, men or women who fast, men and women who guard his honor, men and women who remember Allah much, Allah prepared for them forgiveness and great reward. ” (Surah al-Ahzab, 33: 35)
Some texts of other traditions, noting how the Prophet. hearing problems faced by women, and how the defense made to satisfy the rights of women. Here are just a name but a few examples:
A’ishah. said, that there is a teenage girl who came to see him and say: “My father marry me with his nephew, for his social status uplifted me, and I do not like”. “Sit down, soon came to the Messenger of Allah, I will ask”, said Aisha. When the Messenger of Allah. came, immediately before he disclosed the woman question. He called the woman’s parents (while giving a warning), and return the matter to the woman to give a decision. In front of them, girls had stated (emphatically): “I let my father what he had done, but I wanted to give a warning as well as a statement for all women: that their parents have absolutely no rights over this issue.” (History Nasa’i, see Jami ‘al-Usul, no. Hadith: 8974, 12/142)
In the hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari, Malik, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa’i, that when a woman named Khansa bint Khidzam ra. feels forced to marry by her parents, the Prophet returned to her decision; want continued or canceled. Not returned to his parents. In the history of Abu Salamah, the Prophet. declare to the Khansa ra.: “You are entitled to marry someone that you wish”. Khansa was eventually mate with male choice, Abu Lubabah bin Abd al-Mundhir ra. From this marriage she was granted a son named Saib bin Abu Lubabah. (See: az-Zayla’i, Nashb Takhrij ahaadeeth ar-Rayah al-Hidayah, juz III, p. 237)
Umar bin Khattab ra., Never told about the change of Arab women, after converting to Islam. They have more courage to talk about something and demand that they are entitled. Umar said: “One time we were thinking of doing something, all of a sudden my wife suggested:” Just do another, this or that ‘. I said to him: “What’s your privilege to speak in this case, ought not to interfere in my case.”
My wife replied: “Funny you this, O Son of al-Khattab, you’re not willing to argue your own wife, and daughter Hafsah ra., Wife of the Prophet. Often provide inputs and denied the offer of the Prophet., Until one day the Holy Prophet ever. Do not like all day. “
Hearing the news, rushed to meet Hafsah Umar: “My daughter, did you often denied the bid of the Prophet. Until he has been angry all day?” “We, the wives used to do it”, said Hafsah. Umar replied: “I warn you, should you fear the punishment of Allah swt. And the anger of His Messenger. Do not be jealous of one of the most beautiful wife, and make you dare do that to the Messenger of Allah”.
“Then I, – ‘Umar said. – Out of the house Hafsah ra., And went to the house of Umm Salamah ra., One of Muhammad’s wife., Because the relationship with her relatives. I tell you about my bad behavior Hafsah against the Prophet., And my anger to him. However, Umm Salamah ra. full of surprising answer: “Strange are you, O Son of al-Khattab, you want to interfere in all affairs of others, until the affairs of the Messenger of Allah and you interfere his family as well “. I’m out of the house of Umm Salamah ra. with full of shame. He has broken the spirits to come interfere in this affair. ” (Bukhari-Muslim history, see the complete text of Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul, II/481-482, no. Hadith 854)
Umar then said in various occasions:
“By Allah, we in the Pagan women never take into account. Then God sends down a few paragraphs about them, and give rights to them. We then realized that in fact they also have the right to be autonomous where we could no longer intervene.” (Hadith Bukhari, Book 77, chapter 31, no. 5843)
Some hadith text, which explicitly states the rights of women in domestic life, where women not previously owned the Pagan Arabs. Among these, who narrated the hadith text Mu’awiyah ibn Hakim ibn al-Qusyairy Haydah, that his grandfather asked the Messenger of Allah.: “What are the rights of the wife?”. Apostle replied: “You have to feed her as you eat, gave her clothes as you wear, do not hit her, not harass and not hostile to leave the house.” (See Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul, juz VII, p.. 357)
Progress, Changes, and Interpretation
The stories of the lives of women during the Prophet. that, inspired many scholars to ensure and promote the basic rights of women. Both the social, economic, and political. Especially women scholars, such as Aisha bint Abi Bakr ra., After the death of the Prophet. Development and social change, also affect many of the scholars in seeing and interpreting reference hadith texts, as well as the particular texts.
For reasons of social change in particular, some scholars forbide women to come and enter the mosque. While in the mosque of that, the center of education, information, politics, and economics, as well as a place of worship, of course. The ban is based on the text of the particular traditions regarding threats against women who like to tease with the fragrance she was wearing. A’ishah criticized fatwas like this, that the rights to go to the mosque are the same, men and women. There should be no woman has been prohibited. If the problem is ‘disturbing and seductive’, then there must be control for men and for women. The relation of men and women, must be disciplined and directed, not to be involved in the attraction of the body and low morale, but for religious and humanitarian work, which is based on thought and charitable deeds.
This spirit led some scholars, to base the reference texts of Hadith (the principles) while performing the interpretation of particular texts. As related to the prohibition of women’s leadership, total obedience to her husband, accompanied by a mahram necessity when traveling, the issue of marriage and divorce issues. This interpretation is based on the principle of recognition for women’s rights, equal and fair, as in men. Of course, except in special circumstances due to biological circumstances of women.
Some scholars, at the present time, make efforts to defend women’s rights through the texts of Prophetic traditions. By presenting a reference text, or by criticizing skewed interpretation based on the particular hadith texts. Among other things, Hadith books written by ‘Abd al-Halim Muhammad Abu Syuqqah, Tahrir al-mar’ah fi’ Ashr ar-Risala; Dirasah ‘an al-an-li mar’ah Jami’ah Nushush Qur’an Shahihi wa al-Karim al-Bukhari wa Muslim (Women’s Liberation in The Prophecy: Studies on Women of Quranic verses and Hadith Text written by Imam Bukhari and Muslim, this book has been translated into Indonesian). In addition to other hadith books, written by Shaykh Muhammad al-Ghazali, an-Sunnah Nabawiyyah; Baina Expert Ahl al-Hadith wa al-Ra’yi (Hadith of the Prophet; between Ulema Ulema Hadith and Rational), and Kitab al -Mar ‘ah bain at-Taqalid Rakidah ar wa-al-al-Ara Wafidah (Women between Tradition and Modernity in restraint of the Challenge). So did the books of Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, among them: an-Sunnah Nabawiyyah; ADH-Dhawabith wa al-Ma’alim (Hadith of the Prophet PBUH.; Principles and Character).
Khalid M. Abou el Fadl in his book ‘In The Name of God’, has a chapter discussing the patterns of meaning to particular hadith texts on women’s issues, namely the meaning of faith-based. With a base of faith, we can doubt some hadith texts perceived conflict with the faith that teaches the importance of recognition of women’s humanity and respect for the dignity of women. As the hadith which says that the acceptance of women to go to heaven depends on the willingness of the husband, the necessity of women to lick pus flowing from the husband’s body, the angels curse women who refuse sexual intercourse (sexual) with her husband (not vice versa), and several other hadith text .
Some scholars among NU in Indonesia, also have discussed some of the text of the particular traditions, base on the principle of women’s rights. This interpretation can be regarded as an effort of recognition and defense of women’s rights. As interpretation of KH. Ali Yafie, KH. Sahal Mahfudz, KH. Aqil Siradj and of course KH. Husein Muhammad, that the text of the hadith ‘There will be happy a people who give up leadership in women’, can not serve as the basis for the prohibition of women’s leadership. The text of this particular hadith, because he was preaching the leadership of the Emperor Prince of Persia, which is experiencing destruction. The text of this tradition can not be the basis for the curtailment of political rights of women.
According to scholars such as these, women’s rights defense is the defense of Islam. As the Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150 H), when he rejected polygamy plan Caliph al-Mansur, and was praised by the wife of the king by sending a gift to the Imam. However, Imam Abu Hanifah said: “Convey my greetings to the Empress of the Caliph, bring back the gift, and told him that I’m defending my religion, Islam.”
Of course, defense is the defense of women’s rights also to Islam. Because in Islam, as stated in a hadith text, aside from the path of thorns alone was included alms and charity who loved God Almighty. and His Messenger. In a hadith narrated by Imam Muslim, that someone who helps the problem faced by a Muslim, he will be assisted from the problems it faces on the Day of Judgement. Moreover, the defense of women’s rights is the practice of the basic teachings of Islam, as mentioned in the text of the first hadith. That is about certainty there is no one else who tyrannized Muslims, injured, humiliated and harassed. Because humans in the view of Islam is a dignified and noble. “Really, We really glorify the children of Adam (humans).” (Surah al-Isra: 70) And Allah knows best.