Religious understanding about male leadership in the family often becomes a real constraint strengthening women headed families. In data released PEKKA in 2005 for example, there are 13.4% of Indonesian families headed by women are generally widows, both due to her husband’s widowed or abandoned. As head of the household, they must bear the burden of economic and social development of all family members in their homes.
But the social constraints that are formed make it difficult for them to empower themselves to his role as head of household. On the access of micro loans for example, most banks still give confidence to families headed by men, not led by women. Not to mention the cultural isolation that makes them more difficult to access other benefits to their power, such as knowledge, economy, let alone social and political position. Recognized or not, one contribution of the formation of these social problems is religion that necessitates understanding of male leadership. The religion prohibits the public understood and not given a chance, let alone appreciate the woman to lead the family. Although real life often bring women to the situation with no other choice but to take the reins of family leadership. If there is no support fror religion, Islam in this case, women who headed households will continue to be marginalized and difficult to gain access to empowerment itself.
Appreciation and support the Prophet.
The primary mission of Prophet Muhammad’s presence., As confirmed by Islamic scholars and thinkers, are alignments of marginalized and underpowered people (mustad’afîn). This mission comes with the social teachings such as attention on poor people and poor, weak slave, isolated neighbors, widows who can not afford, abandoned orphaned children. On many occasions, the Prophet Muhammad PBUH appreciated and affirmed the social teachings to the weak people.
One very famous hadith texts, in relation to female family member insurer, are texts about caring for orphans. The social context of war at the time of the Prophet, which makes women economically dependent on their husbands become worse when the man died in battle. Likewise the children who abandoned their father, who later referred to as orphans, also became stranded with their mother.
Quranic verses, of course, come down to paying attention to them, and came to rule the Muslim community to support, nurture, and empower them. Paragraph 127 surah an-Nisa represents these concerns and partisanship, both to children who are weak and neglected, both men and women. The main message of the verses surah ad-Duha, surah number 7th in the Koran, said that Islam is so clearly advocated to provide security for an orphan, give directions to the lost, provide for the weak, not rebuke of orphans and not expelled the requesters. This is all, as reaffirmed in the last paragraph as an expression of gratitude for the gifts and blessings given by God Almighty.
The assertion in the text of the hadith regarding these alignments, of which can be found in the report of Abu Hurayrah who is well known. That the Prophet Muhammad PBUH said: “Insurers orphans, offspring or other genetics, I and he would like two things in heaven one day”, pointing to the forefinger and middle finger him. (Reported by Imam Malik and Imam Muslim, See: Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul min ahaadeeth ar-Rasul, juz 1, no. Hadith: 222).
Imam Abu Hatim, Ibn Hibban as mentioned, interpreting the text of this tradition in the context of basic Islamic teachings about compassion. As mentioned in the text of another tradition, “That will be loved by God are those who care about others.” Allegories index finger and middle finger, also shows that the Prophet Muhammad PBUH and guarantor of orphans are in a position (martabah) the same later on in heaven later. (Sahih Ibn Hibban, juz 2, pg. 197).
If referring to the case of female heads of households in the top, which experienced 13.4% of Indonesian families, for example, they are the ones who will be together and be in the position of the Prophet in Heaven. This eschatological unity should be translated in the form of social support and empowerment in real life.
Respect the people who will be with him in heaven, in life in this world, is in the form of social support to them. If we are paying tribute to women who are heads and bear the burden of living family members, then it should be no longer any reason to humiliate them let alone take it out of the teachings of Islam. Instead, there must be the production of religious views that reinforce their position.
Respect also, if we are in a position policy maker, must be in the form of political policies that empower them, both economic, social, and politic. When further analysis, social neglect of women’s actual person in a family rooted in the unequal social relations, where women are always placed at a lower position than men. In relationships like these, women will always be blamed, even if already done the work of prophecy with the burden of orphans. The function of female heads of households, who do, becomes a social problem, simply because they are women. Negative labeling of women heads of households only occurs in society that demeans women. Prophet Muhammad PBUH, On various occasions, has emphasized the honor of women.
Text hadith which states: “There are three things that made me fall in love with the world problem of you, women, fragrances, and my eye ornamentation in prayer” (Reported by Imaam Ahmad, an-Nasa’i and al-Bayhaqi), became the primary basis for Shaykh Ibn al-‘Arabi (1165-1240) on glorious affirmation of women’s position in the eyes of the Prophet. In the context of this assertion, the prohibition of women as heads of households should not have happened. First, because in practice many women who bear the burden of the household, including when the husband is still there though. Second, leadership is a matter meritocracy where everyone has full rights to the consideration of individual abilities rather than on gender.
Leadership Hadith Household
Prohibiting religious view of women’s leadership based more on the 34th paragraph of a surah an-Nisa. This verse actually gives two conditions for the men to lead families to have quality and provide a living (bima faddalallâhu ba’dahum ‘ala wa bima ba’dh anfaqû amwâlihim min.) That is, leadership is not based on gender alone, but on the self-quality men’s and ability to provide a living. Based on the consideration of this requirement, some progressive Muslim thinkers propose the possibility of women becoming a leader, when the man as her husband did not have the quality or unable to provide a living.
In the discussion of the hadith, which is usually be a reference to the discussion of family leadership is the text which states:
“Kullukum ‘rain kullukum mas’ûlun wa’ an ra’iyyatihî, fa al-imâmu ‘râ’in mas’ûlun wa’ an ra’iyyatihî, arrujulu râ’in wa wa fi ahlihî mas’ûlun ‘an ra’iyyatihî, wal mar’atu râ’iyaatun wa fi Bayti zawjatihâ mas’ûlatun ‘an ra’iyyatihâ, wal khâdimu fi mali wa Huwa sayyidihî râ’in mas’ûlun’ an ra’iyyatihî “. This hadith is narrated by Imam al-Bukhari, Muslim, Turmudzi, and Abu Dawud. (See: Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul min ahaadeeth ar-Rasul, Kitab al-Khilafah wal Emirate, no. Hadith: 2028).
The text of this tradition usually defined as follows: “Each of you are leaders, and held accountable for their leadership. Imam or Caliph was the leader and will definitely be held accountable for the leadership of his people, a man is a leader in the family and will be held accountable, a woman is also the leader of her husband’s household and accountability will be asked, the waiter is also the leader to the assets of his master and will be held accountable upon it “.
If rain means the leader, then the text of this tradition really opens up the possibility of women to become leaders with a different scope. The man leading the family, women lead households. Meaning, women actually allowed to become heads of households, while men who became head of the family. But with the differences in this coverage, whether women can only lead the household and must not lead the family? What’s different household and family? What is the difference in coverage is an absolute, absolute, where men forever and in any case should lead the family? Likewise women are forever forbidden to lead the family and household? In general, if the text of this tradition to talk about the legal certainty of leadership?
I understand that the text of this tradition is not in the context of the scope of leadership, where one must be certain coverage and prohibited from moving on the other coverage. I understand that as an affirmation of moral leadership it is not the scope of leadership. Moral of leadership accountability. When someone has a duty of leadership, about anything and in any scope, he must have the moral high responsibility to run a good leadership, professional, moral and responsibility.
We can compare the text ‘râ’iyatun Bayti zawjihâ fi’, that ‘women are the leaders of her husband’s household’, with text narrated by Imam al-Bukhari “râ’iyatun ‘ala Bayt zawjiha experts’ that ‘woman is a leader in the house of her husband’s family’ (Sahih Bukhari, no. Hadith 7158). In the first history of ‘female head of household’, while the second ‘female leader of the family’. The difference of this history shows that women can lead households can also lead the family. But both these histories describe the scope of women’s leadership: in the house of her husband. Is this coverage absolute? In my opinion is not absolute. We see the first piece in the text of the hadith, where an imam or caliph is a leader. If this is translated in the present context as president, then the scope of its leadership has changed much with an imam or caliph in the past, especially if interpreted as governors, mayors, district heads or leaders of an organization. So is the last piece, a waiter was the leader of the treasure to his master. The meaning and scope of his leadership on his master property can change depending on the demands of social, cultural, even a deal. Probably a servant does not required to contract on the property responsible for his master but only at the institution, organization, or a family member of his master, or the other. The main message of the text of this tradition is not to supreme coverage of personal leadership, for example, that men should include the family while the women only at home. As also fluctuating and flexible to people’s rulers and servants of cases employers. In the history of Imam Bukhari, the women also led the family and not just household.
In my opinion, the moral message of the text of this tradition is “that someone is bound to lead, and therefore must be responsible for that leadership.” Ruler over the people, men of family, women of the household, and maid to the assets of the employer is only an example only to facilitate illustration ‘where someone is sure to lead and since it must be responsible’. With the understanding of ethical-moral like this, I actually prefer to interpret the ‘rain’ as the person in-charge rather than leaders.
These discussions can be concluded that Islam is very supportive of the work a person for the good of his family members, neighbors, or anyone else. Islam is more emphasis on charitable deeds, rather than social status or sex. In this case, we can ensure that the head of household or family head is actually just social status, because the main thing is its social function in assumed responsibility for the good of the household and family. These social functions are supported and appreciated Islam.
Therefore, when many women who perform these functions, as described by 13.4% of Indonesian families, then the appreciation and support for them is not only necessary, but mandatory and is an implementation of Islamic shariah. Because Allah and the Prophet Muhammad as well just look at someone of the work done, rather than social status or gender that carried owned.
“And those who do good deeds, male or female, and he is a believer, We (Allah) will give a good life and would provide a better return than they do”. Allaah knows best