This paper wants to discuss the basic assumptions and principles of community organizing, particularly in relation to issues of justice on relationships between female and male, by taking inspiration from the life history of Prophet Muhammad PBUH., and some text-related traditions. It may be hard to find a hadith text that relate directly to issues of community organizing for the interests of justice, but the inspiration of the texts are available, especially from the Holy Prophet’s history that can be used for discussion on this issue. This paper is based on the three prepositions: first, the community organizers in the category in which issues of social justice of jihad relationship is become one of the primary, secondly, actors as well as the main target of this jihad is the women themselves, third, the issue of strengthening the rights of Islamic women should be placed reciprocally with the issue of male obligation because its base is the issue of relations, as well as vice versa obligations and rights of women to men.
One of the hadith texts that are often discussed when studying at Dar al-Tawheed Arjawinangun-Cirebon is the expression “al-haqq bila yaghlibuhu nizam” That the unorganized truth will easily be defeated by an organized evil. For hadith experts, this text is difficult to prove as the hadith. Then some scholars leaning to the Imam Ali bin Abi Talib ra., But also may still be doubted. However, this sentence remains an inspiration about the importance of organizing an aspiration or interest. In fact without having a single direct and associated text, the life of Prophet Muhammad’s preaching already laden with organizing efforts, delegation and cadre to spread monotheism among the people, who surrounded practices idolatry and social injustice.
Anyone who read the sirah or life history of Prophet Muhammad PBUH., Especially those written by Husein Haikal, will be displayed just how much intelligence strategy for the sake of da’wah Prophet carried by utilizing all available resources, whether economic, social and human resources. All elements introduced Islamic society, educated and involved with the mission regardless of social status. As Ali ibn Talib who was a small child; Abdullah ibn Umm Maktum the blind; Bilal bin Rabah the slave, of course, in addition to Abu Bakr ibn Siddiq wealthy, and also Uthman bin Affan. The women are also actively involved as perpetrators of proselytizing; ranging from those with high social status such as Khadijah bint Khuwalid, Fatima bint al-Khatab, Asma bint Abu Bakr, Umm Salamah, until their status who is very low among the ignorant people are like Umm Ammar bin Yasir.
Involving women and their low social status not only to strengthen the ranks of Islamic propaganda, but more important than it is to reinforce the mission of equality and justice initiated Islam, religion of Prophet Muhammad that were presented. The story about the warning of God Almighty. against the Prophet. when leaving Abdullah ibn Umm Maktum the blind and turned toward the elite of Quraysh, confirmed how Islam forbids denying those who are considered low in a particular society. More than that, this story also inspired the organization of propaganda that should pay attention to real groups that come into contact with the problem, not the elites who are often just toying with them. This story can be read in hadith texts on the background decline letter ‘Abasa wa tawalla, 80th letter in the Qur’an.
Jihad is the earnestness
General understanding of people that jihad is a war, and Islam does not encourage women’s involvement in the war, even if they should be involved enough to be given the roles of solace, consumption or medical personnel. Third level of understanding of jihad is not entirely correct. Literal language of course, jihad is a seriousness in implementing something. If sincerity is called ijtihad doubled. But then jihad is connoted to be physical activity, while intended for the activities of ijtihad sense in finding knowledge or a particular view. Both activities are often only conoted by jihad denote as work-men, not women. If refers to the use of pronunciation of jihad in general, there is plenty of conjecture that actually refers to male and female simultaneously. As the meanings of jihad as a missionary to the truth, fight in Allah’s way, subdue the passions, establish a pilgrimage and Umrah, serving the elderly, and of course other meanings-meanings that can be found from various text traditions.
Text hadith which states jihad lust as great jihad is weak in the assessment of Imam al-Bayhaqi, for example. But in many hadith literature, jihad is not only meant as a war. Example is the text of the hadith, “Jihad carried out the elderly, children and women is the Hajj and Umrah”. (Reported by an-Nasai, juz 5, p.. 120). The text of this tradition is not for women only jihad localize in the hajj, or to prohibit the involvement of physical jihad war, but rather to emphasize the jihad is not just a question of war and fisik
In the broader arena, particularly with respect to the relation of men and women, jihad can be interpreted as “justice.” The reality of inequality faced by Muslim women is a form of injustice, and then all earnest effort (jihad) must be done to remove these imbalances. In narrated by Abu Dawood and Al-Turmudzi from Abi Sa’eed al-Khudry ra. say, the best jihad is kalimatu ‘Adlin, or struggle for justice in the face of sultan ja’ir, or authoritarian rule. That is, fighting to achieve justice in the face of the realities of authoritarian and unbalanced, leading to injustice, inequality and violence. When injustice, both real and smooth, facing women which causes them to lose the dignity of independence, freedom to think, opinion, and freedom reject arbitrarily treated as human beings, then the obligation of jihad has come. Justice requires the involvement of various parties, especially parties makers and recipients of interest in this relationship, namely women.
Women Actors and Beneficiaries
The story of Umar bin Khattab ra. narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim following can inspire a lot of things about the organization of women’s interests, where the perpetrators and beneficiaries are women themselves. Umar said, “One time we were thinking of doing something, all of a sudden my wife suggested,” Just do another, this or that. ” I told him, “What’s your privilege to speak in this case, no need to interfere in my case.” My wife replied, “Funny you this, O son of al-Khattab, you’re not willing to argue your own wife, and daughter Hafsah, wife of the Prophet. often give feedback and bid denied the Prophet., until one day the Holy Prophet ever angry all day. ”
Hearing the news, rushed to meet Hafsah Omar, “My daughter, did you often denied the bid of the Prophet until the Prophet was very angry all day? “We, the wives used to do it”, said Hafsah. Umar replied, “I warn you, should you fear the punishment of Allah swt. anger and His Messenger. Do not be jealous of one of the most beautiful wife, and make you dare do that to the Prophet. “Then I .. “‘Umar said. “… Out of the house Hafsah ra., And went to the house of Umm Salamah ra., One of the other wives of the Prophet, because the relationship with her relatives. I tell you about my bad behavior, Hafsah against the Prophet., And anger to him. But Umm Salamah ra. full answer surprised, “Funny you this, O son of al-Khattab, you want to interfere in all affairs of others, until the affairs of the Prophet and his also his family,” Umar end the story, “I’m out of the house of Umm Salamah ra. with great shame. She has broken my spirit to come interfere in this affair. “(Reported by Bukhari-Muslim)
The story should be placed in a context where many women do not get right, even to speak to voice their self-interest. Umar ra. in this respect once said, “By Allah, we in the Pagan women never take into account. Then God sends down a few paragraphs about them, and give rights to them. We realized then that it turns out they also have the right to be autonomous where we could no longer intervene.”
Some of the hadith texts are clearly noted the role of women as change for justice. They came to the Messenger of Allah. alone or in groups, to submit claims and request pro Rasullah saw. to their interests. Umm Salamah ra. for example, asked the Prophet., for God Almighty. explicitly mention the roles of women, who have real faith and emigrated the same as men. Because of all this, which many referred to in the Qur’an is the male roles Friends of Umm al-Anshariyyah ammarah ra., Also dared to tell, “I came to the Prophet., And said: It seems, all things entrusted to male. I do not see the woman mentioned in any role. “(In a history of at-Turmudzi)
When Khansa bint Khidam ra feels compelled mated his parents, he came to the Prophet and asked for support for his bias. Prophet then give him the decision, would be continued or canceled. Not returned to his parents. In the history of Abu Salamah, the Prophet. declare to the Khansa ra., “You are entitled to marry someone that you wish.” Khansa was eventually mate with male choice, Abu Lubabah bin Abd al-Mundhir ra. From this marriage he was granted a son named Saib bin Abu Lubabah.
A’ishah. said, there is a teenage girl who came to see him and say, “My father marry me with his nephew, for his social status uplifted me, and I do not like.” “Sit down, soon Messenger comes, I’ll ask”, said Aisha. When the Messenger of Allah. came, expressed directly in front of the Prophet women’s issues earlier. The Prophet also called the parents of the adolescent girls (while giving a warning), and return the matter to the woman to give a decision. In front of them, young women stated (emphatically), “I let my father what he had done, but I wanted to give a warning as well as a statement for all women, their parents have absolutely no rights over this issue.” (History of – Nasa’i)
In the context of strengthening the rights of women in Muslim communities, the issue of strengthening the rights of women should be placed in the context of a reciprocal relationship. First, because it is theologically Islam not only introduces a mere right to be freely obtained by someone without any obligation whatsoever. Any rights acquired directly proportional and reciprocal obligations that must be executed. Second, as issues of relationships, strengthening women’s rights can not be released without the issue of liability of men, so women do not receive a double burden on the community context that still glorify male than female. The rights inherent in men should also be discussed in turn with women’s rights. Likewise their obligations in the context of the relationship as husband and wife pairs.
Both these perspectives necessitate the existence of the principle of equality and togetherness of women and men, as is hinted at various verses of the Koran. As the verses in surah Al-Baqarah (2: 229, 232, and 233), An-Nisa (4: 1, 19, 20, and 48), Ali ‘Imran (3: 159), An-Nahl (16 : 97), Ar-Rum (30: 21), and Ash-Shura (42: 38). The principles in these verses assert the right person in the context of relationships can not be turned into contempt partner. Likewise, the existing obligation on a person is not into it or blocks him from the rights that should be obtained from the partner. A person may not be able to either undertake the obligations if not accompanied by the fulfillment of their rights.
For example, the text tradition of the honor of a mother who described the Prophet Muhammad PBUH three times versus one-time glory of a father, must be understood with the perspective of a reciprocal relationship or reciprocity. Usually this hadith text only understood as an obligation of a woman to become a mother, without accompanied their rights to reproductive health and fulfillment is sufficient information. Even if there are rights, only limited breeding with the verbal promises of reward in the hereafter. While in the world, women’s reproductive duty to be left alone, since it regarded as an inherent obligation. The real hadith text was not set obligatory, but more in the forgotten rights patriarchal society. Therefore, the Prophet disclose as much as three times. But people who do not provide support for the rights of women, will use text such as labeling tradition, if not as a deprivation, where women are only fit to be a mother. Worse, this labeling without accompanied the economic rights of women, especially education of social and political position.
Likewise the texts of other traditions that lie in the books advice husband-wife, who normally only be understood as the basis for imposing an obligation on women and the negative labeling of those who do not meet those obligations. Meaning that no reciprocity will alienate these hadith texts from the spirit of justice which affirmed the Quranic verses above. In this context, strengthening women’s consciousness becomes necessary in working on organizing for them tick and be able to make demands as the women did at the time of Prophet Muhammad PBUH. At the same time, examples from the elite or leader which still mostly men also become very important to streamline justice mission of working on organizing. As the Prophet Muhammad did who are willing to do domestic work of the household, when in fact most people consider it as something contemptible and the work required of women. And Allaah knows best.
- Al-Zuhd, al-Bayhaqi, juz 2, pg. 165, Hadith number: 373.
- Imam ash-San’ani, Subulussalam, see vol 6, p.. 122.
- Jami ‘al-Usul, juz 1, pages 235-236.
- The full text of Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul, II/481-
482, no. Hadith 854.
- Hadith Bukhari, Book of 77/bab 31, no. 5843.
- Ibn al-Athir, Jami ‘al-Usul min al-Rasul ahaadeeth, juz II, p.. 161, no. Hadith: 552.
- Ibn al-Athir, juz II, p.. 377, no. Hadith: 760.
- Az-Zayla’i, Nashb Takhrij ahaadeeth ar-Rayah al-Hidayah, juz III, p.. 237.
- Jami ‘al-Usul, no. Hadith: 8974, 12/142